Scientific Name: Magnifera Indica
Mango (Magnifera Indica) is the leading fruit crop of India and considered to be the King of Fruits. It’s delicious taste, excellent flavor and aroma gives vitamin A and C to our body. Mango occupies 22% of the total under fruits comprising of 1.2 million hectares, with a total production of 11 million tones. Maharashtra (Kokan) having the largest area under mango cultivation.
Mango Trees grow 35-40 m (115-130 ft) tall, with a crown radius of 10 m 9(33 ft). The mango tree is long-lived, as some specimens still fruit after 300 years. In deep soil the descends to a depth of 6 m (20 ft) and the profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots also send down many anchor roots, which penetrate several feet of soil. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple 15-35 cm (5.9-14 in) long and 6-16 cm (2.4-6.3 in) broad; when the leaves are young they are orange-pink, rapidly to a dark glossy red, then dark green as they mature. The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10-40 cm (3.9-16 in) long; each flower is small and white with five petals 5-9 mm ( 0.20 – 0.39 in) long with a mild sweet odor suggestive of lily of the valley. The fruit takes three to six months to ripen.
Mango can be used right from the stages of its development both in its mature and immature state. Raw fruits which called as “Kairi” used for making chutney, pickles and juices. The ripe fruits can be used for dessert and preparing for several products like pulp, squashes, syrups, nectars, jams and jellies.
Fresh Mangoes and its products are the important items for agri-export from India. India’s main export destinations for mango are mostly UAE, Kuwait and other middle east countries and European Market also. India is considered to be the largest mango producing country, as compared to world production. India sharing 15% world mango market. It covers total 40% of the total fruit exports from the India.
Climate Require for cultivation of Mango:
Mango can be grown under tropical and sub-tropical climate from sea level to 1400 M altitude, provided there is no high humidity, rain or frost during the flowering period. Good rainfall and dry summer will be the ideal place for mango cultivation. Winds and cyclones area will not be the right place for mangoes it may cause flower, fruit shedding and breaking of branches.
Soil require for mangoes:
Mango comes up on a wide range of soils from alluvial to late rite provided they are deep (minimum 6 inch) and well drained. It prefers slightly acidic soils(pH 5.5 to 7.5)
Though there are nearly 1000 varieties of mango in India, only following varieties are grown in different states: Alphonso, Bangalora, Banganpalli, Bombai, Bombay Green, Dashehari, Fazli, Fernandin, Himsagar, Kesar, Kishen Bhog, Langra, Mankhurd, Mulgoa, Neelam, Samarbehist, Chausa, Suvarnarekha, Vanaraj and Zardalu.
India is the home of mangoes. A large number of varieties are found in almost all parts of the country. According to the statistic collected by the Fruit Development Advisor, Government of India, out of the total fruit acreage of 12,79,000 ha mangoes alone covered 8,91000 ha i.e. nearly 70% of total area under fruits. Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Bihar and West Bengal lead in mango growing.
Among the numerous varieties, ‘Safaida’ and ‘Dusehri’ of U.P, ‘Alphonso’ of Ratnagiri, ‘Badami’ of Mysore, ‘Benishan’ of east Coast and ‘Raspuri’, ‘ Neelam’ and ‘Mulgoa’, of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are the most important varieties for canning. Mango being the most important and unique commercial fruit of India and known as the king of fruits, it is essential to develop large scale canning and preservation of the fruit.